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外事翻译的要点难点七
发布时间:2009-07-10    稿件来源:市外事办公室    【字体大小: 】浏览次数:
第 七 辑 2008中央经济工作会议
☆ 权威解读
1. “保增长”是头等大事 逆境中把握住机遇
  在国际金融危机对实体经济带来的影响进一步加深的背景下,经济“保增长”成为当前头等大事。中央经济工作会议强调,必须把保持经济平稳较快发展作为明年经济工作的首要任务,要着力在保增长上下功夫。
  对有着13亿人口的发展中大国来说,经济保持较快的增长速度有着特别重大的意义。经济增速过慢,就无法有效满足社会发展的需要,不能缓解就业等各种社会问题,就不利于全面建设小康社会的顺利推进。
  会议认为,“我国经济发展的基本面和长期趋势没有改变,我们遇到的困难和挑战是前进中的问题”“完全有条件变压力为动力、化挑战为机遇,把国际金融危机的不利影响降到最低程度”“我国发展的重要战略机遇期仍然存在,不会因为这场金融危机而发生逆转”。
  专家认为,凭借中国雄厚的经济实力和广阔市场空间,按照中央的统一部署,扎实工作,2009年中国经济保持8%至9%的增速不会有太大问题。
  翻译难点:基本面 fundamentals
  2. 坚持以扩大内需为主 做足“消费”这篇大文章
  拉动经济的“三驾马车”(投资、消费、出口)中,出口能力已明显减弱。海关数据显示,11月我国进出口增速均大幅回落,特别是出口在近年来首次出现月度负增长,今后我国外贸形势将更加严峻。
  在外部需求明显收缩的情况下,2009年中国经济必须要在内需上做足文章。中央经济工作会议指出,“要把扩大内需作为保增长的根本途径”。
  国务院发展研究中心产业经济部部长冯飞表示,目前我国内需增长潜力较大,且长期没有得到充分释放,一直是经济发展中的薄弱环节。他举例称,当前消费对中国经济增长贡献率为30%多,而在美国却一直在70%左右。
  “扩大内需,刺激消费,等于抓住了拉动经济增长的‘牛鼻子’。”专家们还表示,中国是世界上储蓄率(savings rate)很高的国家,居民储蓄超过了20万亿元,进一步扩大消费具有巨大市场潜力和发展空间。
  此次会议在“刺激消费”方面提出了诸多措施:要以提高居民收入水平和扩大最终消费需求为重点,调整国民收入分配格局;要支持能够扩大最终消费需求、带动中间需求的项目(“最终需求”指的是全社会的消费者对社会总产品的最终使用或消费;而“中间需求”则是指生产者和商家为了转售、为了进一步加工或制造而进行的购买需求。一般来说,社会生产现代化程度越高,最终消费需求带动中间消费需求的乘数就越大,从而最终消费需求带动的就业人口也就越多。);大力促进农民消费,稳定住房消费和汽车消费,着力发展服务消费和旅游消费,不断增强最终消费能力。
  商务部国际贸易经济合作研究院副研究员梅新育表示,会议中明确了实行结构性减税,优化财政支出结构,在就业、社保、教育、医疗等方面的支持力度,就为扩大内需消除了后顾之忧。
  翻译难点:形势严峻 a grim situation
  最终需求 ultimate demand
  中间需求 intermediate demand
3. 宏观政策继续“灵活审慎” 财政货币政策持续发力
  实现经济平稳较快发展,离不开宏观政策的保驾护航。鉴于明年经济外部环境复杂多变,中央经济工作会议提出,继续实施灵活审慎的宏观经济政策,努力提高调控的科学性、时效性。
  继中央在11月初确定实行积极的财政政策和适度宽松的货币政策后,此次会议在财政、货币政策方面进一步细化,提出的措施也更加具体,更有针对性。专家们指出,明年这两大宏观调控政策将持续发力,全力促进经济发展。
  专家表示,会议还强调政府投资带动私人投资的功能,同时提出“拓宽民间投资领域和渠道”,从而有效增强拉动经济增长的合力。社科院金融研究所专家刘煜辉评价说,强调“结构调整”的重要性,格外注重“有保有压”,也是明年财政政策的一大特点。
  需要强调的是,促进股市和房地产稳定健康发展,这也是明年宏观调控的着力方向。会议提出,要“增强投资者信心”“发挥房地产在扩大内需中的积极作用”,从而凸显了股市和房市在促进经济增长中不可或缺的地位。
  翻译难点:合力 synergy
  4. 资源价格等诸多改革“齐头并进” 深化改革开放添活力
  发展需要活力,活力来自改革。中央经济工作会议指出,明年要“把深化重点领域和关键环节改革、提高对外开放水平作为保增长的强大动力”。
  会议部署了2009年的一系列改革举措,涉及资源价格体制、公共财政管理体制、金融体制、国有企业、非公有制经济等诸多领域。
  其实,对明年一些重要改革,今年下半年就已在紧锣密鼓地筹备出台。目前,成品油价税费改革方案正向社会征求意见。此前,医药卫生体制改革方案已征求过意见,增值税转型已明确将于明年起全面实施。
  尽管外需在不断萎缩,但我国出口产品多为基本消费品,仍有较大的市场空间。对此,会议也明确提出,要“坚持扩大内需为主和稳定外需相结合,进一步增强抵御外部经济风险能力”,要“努力保持出口稳定增长”。
  “按照部署,稳定外需要多下真功夫。今后,发展对外经济应更加注重结构调整与升级,加快外贸增长方式的转变。”国家发展和改革委员会对外经济研究所所长张燕生说。
  翻译难点:
  紧锣密鼓地筹备出台一系列改革 be geared up for the reform/lose no time in preparing for the reform/ Preparation for the reform is in full swing.
  抵御 fend off
  5. 杜绝“形象工程” 扩展科学发展新空间
  会议强调,搞建设项目,要严格按照项目审批和建设程序办事,坚决防止高耗能、高污染、低水平重复建设,绝不能降低工程质量,绝不能搞劳民伤财的“形象工程”和脱离实际的“政绩工程”。
  中国发展研究基金会副秘书长汤敏表示,中国经济问题不完全在于速度而在于结构,如果不能按照科学发展观来保增长,而是重复过去那种为增长而增长的投资,最后会使经济结构更为恶化。
  翻译难点: 形象工程 image project
  政绩工程 vanity project
  劳民伤财 that waste both money and manpower
  6. 高度关注民生 积极促进就业
  中央经济工作会议提出,要“把改善民生作为保增长的出发点和落脚点”,将解决民生问题提升到了一个相当重要的位置。
  会议要求继续加大财政对“三农”、就业、社会保障、教育、医疗等涉及民生方面的支持力度,加大对低收入家庭的补贴和救助力度。
  专家指出,这不仅有利于改善民生,也有助于拉动消费,使经济增长向内需驱动型转变。“经济政策的调整更要关注人民的根本利益,更要兼顾我们短期中期和长期利益,这能为经济发展提供持久动力。”财政部财政科学研究所副所长白景明说。
  在部分企业出现经营困难、有些职工因此歇业、农民工出现回流势头的背景下,就业任务在当前显得格外重要。会议提出,“必须实施更加积极的就业政策,全方位促进就业增长,确保就业形势基本稳定”“支持内部治理结构完善、就业容量大的劳动密集型企业”。
  按照部署,明年我国将加大财政对服务业和中小企业的支持力度,以吸纳更多的劳动力。
  翻译难点: 回流 backflow (n.)/flood (v.) back
  倒闭潮wave of bankruptcy
☆ 对照阅读
A
  Policymakers at the CEWC(Central Economic Work Conference) vowed to boost domestic demand(促内需) and carry out economic restructuring to maintain a sound economic growth amid the deepening global financial crisis.
  The worsening global economic situation forced the World Bank to cut its growth forecast for the world economy from 1 percent to 0.9 percent next year. And the global trade volume would contract(同义替换:shrink) by 2.1 percent, it said.
  To tackle the crisis, the government has put creation of jobs and improving people's livelihood on top of its agenda, the CEWC said. A China Central Television (CCTV) report said the government would increase its spending on rural development, education, services, healthcare, social security, job creation, environmental protection and technological innovation.
  The government announced a $586-billion stimulus package(经济刺激措施,为我国多用,欧美等受经济危机影响较重的国家也用救市方案一词,即bailout package) on Nov 9 and slashed the interest rate by 1.08 percentage points, the highest in 11 years, on Nov 26 to boost domestic demand and minimize the impact of the crisis.
  While maintaining its proactive fiscal policy and moderately relaxed monetary policy, the country will implement a "flexible and careful" macroeconomic regulation to ensure that the economy fares well(运行良好) next year, the conference said.
  The country will aim for a "stable and healthy" development of the capital and real estate markets after its major stock indices have fallen by more than two-thirds since late last year and property sales dropped dramatically in some cities, it said.
  The top leadership expressed confidence in bolstering economic growth, saying the country has been able to minimize the impact of the global financial crisis.
  The only thing we have to fear is fear itself, Premier Wen told the CEWC, quoting former US president Franklin D. Roosevelt's words during the Great Depression, according to sources. "China has the ability to overcome difficulties," Wen said.
  Analysts widely expect the government to set an 8 percent GDP growth target for next year.
  This is somewhere between the World Bank's prediction of 7.5 percent and the country's top think tank, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences' forecast of 9.3 percent.
  It would be more realistic to put the growth forecast at 8 percent, given the gloomy(参考译法:不容乐观)global situation and China's determination to boost its economy, said Dong Yuping, senior economist with the Institute of Finance and Banking of the social sciences academy. "It will hinge on(同义替换:depend on)the effect of the country's stimulus package."
  Despite the World Bank forecast of 7.5 percent GDP growth for China next year, its chief economist Justin Yifu Lin told Xinhua Wednesday that the country could manage to achieve an 8 percent growth.
  The global financial crisis notwithstanding, participants at the conference said important opportunities for China's economic and social development still exists and "would not be reversed by ongoing global financial woes".
  All measures taken will ultimately target improving people's living standard, they said.
  The conference stressed more efforts should be made to "solve problems related to interests of ordinary people, so as to maintain social stability".
  In this regard, expenditures in public areas will be "substantially increased" and those in major areas guaranteed.
  Wide-ranging measures should be taken to improve the social welfare system both in urban and rural areas, the conference agreed.
B
  China's annual Central Economic Work Conference opened to set tone for(定基调) the economic development next year.
  Observers believed the three-day event would give priority to efforts to maintain stable economic growth.
  They reckoned in 2009, China would see more risks for worse economic slowdown, more struggling smaller businesses, grim export situation and arduous task of transformation of economic growth pattern.
  It is imperative for China to maintain an economic growth of at least 8 percent, said Zhuang Jian, senior economist with Asian Development Bank's China Resident (常驻)Mission.
  It was hard for China to bear the consequences of a too slow GDP growth, Zhuang added, citing bankruptcy of numerous enterprises, more migrant workers being laid off and difficulties for college graduates to find jobs.
  China's macro-economic policies experienced a dramatic adjustment-- from "preventing economic overheating and curbing inflation" at the beginning of this year to "maintaining growth through expanding domestic demand" at present. In the first three quarters, the nation saw its GDP growth slowed to a single-digit rate for the first time over the past five years, thanks partly to macro-economic control efforts and the ongoing financial woes worldwide.
  The slowdown was worse than expected, said Ma Jiantang, head of the National Bureau of Statistics.
  Data from the bureau showed that the country's GDP growth was 10.6 percent in the first quarter, 10.1 percent in the second, and9 percent in the third.
  President Hu Jintao said at the end of November that the Chinese economy was pressurized(被施加压力) by global economic downturn, obvious ebbing of demand from abroad and weakening of the country's traditional competitive edge.
  Impact from the international financial tsunami on the Chinese economy has begun to show up, and to deepen into various sectors of the real economy, said Wang Yiming, deputy head of the macro economic research institute of the National Development and Reform Commission.
  Since mid October, the Central Government has promulgated a string of policies and measures to prevent the national economy from sliding drastically. They included end of a tight monetary policy and commencement of a moderately easy one, shifting the fiscal policy from "prudent" to "active", starting projects to improve infrastructure and promote people's livelihood, and, expanding domestic demand.
  The People's Bank of China announced tax exemptions and downpayment(首付) cuts as of Oct. 27 to boost the falling real estate sector. The minimum downpayment for a first-time buyer of a residence smaller than 90 square meters was reduced to 20 percent from 30 percent.
  On Nov. 9, state councilors announced a four-trillion-yuan (583.9 billion U.S. dollars) economic-stimulus package, which was seen as the most exciting stimuli in 10 years.
  China has launched a scheme to subsidize rural residents for buying home appliances since the end of 2007. It is estimated that in a period of four years, nearly 480 million units of refrigerators, washing machines, color TV sets and cell phones, which were in huge demand among farmers, will be sold in rural areas nationwide. That means 920 billion yuan to be spent by rural consumers.
  Export has since long been a major driving force for the Chinese economy. Economists believed the stable development of smaller enterprises, particularly the exporters, which provided jobs for 75 percent of urban employees and rural migrant workers, was related to the stability of the enormous Chinese labor market.
  How to prevent export from sliding down too fast is one of the top concerns of the Chinese government.
  It is no doubt that China's export situation will become more grim next year. However, if the country manages to maintain a moderately fast growth in foreign sales of machines and electronics, it will likely achieve a growth of more than 15 percent in export at large, said Mei Xinyu, a trade expert with the Ministry of Commerce.
  China has taken a string of measures to boost development of smaller enterprises.
  It is necessary for the government to work out more detailed, effective methods to mitigate(同义替换:lessen) tax burdens and enhance credit support for smaller businesses, and to help them with their efforts to promote technical upgrading and explore more markets, said Zhao Yumin, another economist with the Ministry of Commerce.
  The service sector, which was able to provide numerous jobs, was yet to be expanded substantially, Zhao added.
☆ 链接江苏
  江苏省发改委副主任徐莹介绍,中央安排在江苏省的近30亿元扩大内需投资,已有九成项目于2008年内开工建设。鉴于世界金融危机对我国经济发展的影响,去年11月中央新增了1000亿元投资,以扩大内需,尽快拉动经济增长。安排在江苏省的近30亿元,涉及到184个大中项目、829个小型项目。这些项目主要集中在农村民生工程、重大基础设施建设、产业升级和发展、节能减排等领域。江苏省将中央资金及省财政配套的100多亿元及时下拨到了相关的市、县。
  涉及江苏的高频词汇:
  共克时艰 make concerted/united efforts to tide over the current difficulties
  保增长,促发展。保稳定,促和谐。Maintain growth momentum and boost economic development; ensure social stability and promote social harmony
【来  源】:翻译中心
【作  者】:洪晔
【发布日期】:2009年2月23日
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